Gerunds

There are three types of verbals in the English language: gerunds, infinitives and participles. We will only be focusing on gerunds and infinitives in this exercise. A Verbal os the blending of two parts of speech.

Gerunds

A gerund is the combination of a noun and a verb, or to put it another way, a gerund is a verb form that acts like a noun. Since a gerund is a noun, it can act as a noun, object, subject complement or subject.

> He loves playing (direct object).
> He dreams about playing Halo 4 (bject of preposition).
> Playing video games is my son's only activity (subject).
> What Jack loves most is playing video games (subject complement).

A gerund may be described by  phrases that are used to describe verbs. To many, it is this one distinguishing feature that identifies the gerund. A gerund phrase is made up of the gerund and all words to complete its meaning. The most distinguishing feature of a gerund is that is it ends in -ing.

Gerund Examples

> John admitted falsifying bank transactions.
> I appreciated having a chance to attend your play.
> The lawyer recommends undertaking careful discovery.
> Jennifer avoided answering any questions at her deposition.

Gerund Phrase Examples

> John admitted falsifying bank transactions.
> I appreciated having a chance to attend your play.
> The lawyer recommends undertaking careful discovery.
> Jennifer avoided answering any questions at her deposition.

The type of clause that typically describes verbs may also describe gerunds.
> Swimming after the race ends, etc.

Gerunds may have objects or subject complements like driving laps, leaking black water, and being president.

Gerunds inherit only two characteristics from nouns.
> 1) Gerunds act as nouns in the sentence, and may be subjects, objects, and anything else that a noun can be.
> 2) Adjectives may also describe gerunds.

Negative Gerunds

The word 'not' must go in front of the gerund.
> The lawyer recommends not undertaking a lengthy discovery.
> Steve enjoys not working weekends anymore.
> Carol recalled not taking Dr. Lawson's math class.
> He considered not attending the introductory English class.

Past Gerunds

A past gerund is the gerund is made up of a gerund followed by the past participle. However, don't be too concerned about this type of gerund as no one uses it but grammarians and English Teachers.

Past Gerund
When it started snowing, I regretted having left my snow tires at the dealership
Most write this way
When it started snowing, I regretted leaving my snow tires at the dealership.

Passive Gerunds

Passive Gerunds are easy to construct. The present form adds being plus the past participle (being + past participle). The past form adds having been plus the past participle (having been + past participle).
> I enjoyed being entertained at your Christmas party.
> I enjoyed having been entertained at your Christmas party.

However, "I enjoyed having been entertained at your Christmas party." is not used much. People generally use:
> I enjoyed being entertained at your Christmas party.