Pronunciation - The 'ed' Sound

Many sounds in English are simple while many others are very difficult. Some even seem impossible. Your language has a different sound envelope than other languages. To help you enunciate your words, I will teach you the 'ed' sound today.

The 'ed' sound is used in the construction of verbs and adjectives. The past simple tense and past participle use the 'ed' sound for all regular verbs. I will show you base verbs that are both voiced and unvoiced. I will also show you ed words that use /id/ as adjectives and /t/ or /d/ as past simple tense and past participle verbs.

The 'ed' Sound

The 'ed' sound has three different sounds: /Id/, /t/ and /d/.

/Id/ Sound

Let's look at words with an -ed suffix that have the /Id/ sound: i.e., end - id.

The suffix -ed should use /id/ when the root word ends in t or d.

Ended, expected, invited, printed, hated, interested, lasted, painted, reported, started, graded, toasted, tasted, objected, needed, decided, sounded, started, fainted, wounded, landed, needed.

/d/ Sound

Let's look at words with an -ed suffix that have the /d/ sound: i.e., open - d.

When the root words ends in b, g, l, m, n, r, v, z, and th, the suffix -ed should use the voiced d, /d/.

Opened, learned, realized, breathed, changed, rolled, arrived, married, studied, tried, climbed, rubbed, married, studied, stuffed, tried, climbed, rubbed, lived, shaved, skilled, missed, studied, tried, climbed, cleaned, cooled, earned, scored, cried, grabbed, moved, viewed, robbed, lived, played, used.

/t/ Sound

Let's look at words with an -ed suffix that have the/t/ sound: laugh - t.

When the root words ends in f, k, p, s, x, ch, th, and sh, the suffix -ed should use the voiceless t, /t/.

Looked, walked, passed, worked, talked, liked, stopped, crashed, laughed, watched, laughed, kicked, typed, liked, kissed, stopped, raked, faxed, kissed, pushed, watched, mixed.

Let's look at adjectives with an -ed suffix that have the /Id/ sound.

The following -ed words used as adjectives are pronounced with /Id/: age - id aged, blessed, dogged, learned, ragged, wretched

'ed' as an Adjective

Used as an adjective
> After 80 years, George was an aged man. /Id/
> Those rats have become such a blessed nuisance since the harvest. /Id/
> The learned professor decided to retire after 40 years of teaching. /Id/

Now let's look at same words when used as verbs
> John ate hamburgers all his life, as a result he aged quickly /d/
> The priest blessed me at the weekly service /t/
> Juan was a very good student. He learned much over the school year /d/