The 'ed' Sound
The 'ed' sound has three different sounds: /Id/, /t/ and /d/.
Let's look at words with an -ed suffix that have the /Id/ sound: i.e., end - id.
The suffix -ed should use /id/ when the root word ends in t or d.
Ended, expected, invited, printed, hated, interested, lasted, painted, reported, started, graded, toasted, tasted, objected, needed, decided, sounded, started, fainted, wounded, landed, needed.
Let's look at words with an -ed suffix that have the /d/ sound: i.e., open - d.
When the root words ends in b, g, l, m, n, r, v, z, and th, the suffix -ed should use the voiced d, /d/.
Opened, learned, realized, breathed, changed, rolled, arrived, married, studied, tried, climbed, rubbed, married, studied, stuffed, tried, climbed, rubbed, lived, shaved, skilled, missed, studied, tried, climbed, cleaned, cooled, earned, scored, cried, grabbed, moved, viewed, robbed, lived, played, used.
Let's look at words with an -ed suffix that have the/t/ sound: laugh - t.
When the root words ends in f, k, p, s, x, ch, th, and sh, the suffix -ed should use the voiceless t, /t/.
Looked, walked, passed, worked, talked, liked, stopped, crashed, laughed, watched, laughed, kicked, typed, liked, kissed, stopped, raked, faxed, kissed, pushed, watched, mixed.
Let's look at adjectives with an -ed suffix that have the /Id/ sound.
The following -ed words used as adjectives are pronounced with /Id/: age - id
aged, blessed, dogged, learned, ragged, wretched
'ed' as an Adjective
Used as an adjective
> After 80 years, George was an aged man. /Id/
> Those rats have become such a blessed nuisance since the harvest. /Id/
> The learned professor decided to retire after 40 years of teaching. /Id/
Now let's look at same words when used as verbs
> John ate hamburgers all his life, as a result he aged quickly /d/
> The priest blessed me at the weekly service /t/
> Juan was a very good student. He learned much over the school year /d/